Benefits of Diamond Polishing

Diamond polishing allows for perfect finishing on edges and sides during the final stage of manufacturing and fabrication on acrylics/plastics. Only diamond with its ability to apply cutting edge angled polishing can be used to achieve optimum quality without sacrificing aspects of the manufacturing process, however, it is a sensitive procedure that requires a lot of attention.  Diamond polishing is used on fabricated plastic and acrylics on angles, sides and edges and industrial parts.

There are two methods of polishing with diamonds, the first involves moving the diamond head across the surface of the plastic/acrylic and the second method involves moving the plastic/acrylic over the diamond head, what method is used is dependent on the measurements and sizes the professional is working with.

The process of diamond polishing is challenging as even the smallest errors can affect the entire polish. However, the beautiful shine which reflects light perfectly is immaculate and is what every manufacturer is after. For these reasons diamond polishing pairs perfectly with Computer Aided Drawing (CAD) to get measurements down to the smallest of scales in ensuring that accuracy is met when polishing. Furthermore, an additional benefit from polishing with diamond is its ability to enhance the durability of machines as weak spots are strengthened and fixed to allow for continued usage.

 FX Plastics are reliable diamond polishers for fabrication products in Australia, so inquire today if you’re interested.

Reap the Benefits that Come with Engaging the Best Laser Cutting Services in Your City

A number of people might not be aware of it, but lasers increasingly coming into use in a myriad of applications with each passing day. Many people might associate laser beams with sci-fi movies or aerospace applications. But, in reality, laser cutting services in Canberra and other places use lasers to assist various kinds of businesses on an everyday basis. Therefore, you might not realise it, but your life could well be incomplete were it not for the presence of various applications and devices that use laser technology.

In the industrial sector, workers use lasers for slicing and transforming objects with minimal fuss. For instance, in the laser material processing sector, a laser will strike an object, resulting in the object undergoing various kinds of alterations. These alterations or changes take place because of the absorption of photons. For the uninitiated, photons refer to particles of light emitted from the laser. On striking the object for a specified span of time, these particles of light will change into heat energy.

Lasers are devices that control the manner in which highly stimulated atoms emit photons for creating streams of light. When a laser strikes an object or a material, only three activities can take place. Therefore:

  • The object or material will reflect the laser light stream
  • The object or material will transmit the laser light stream or,
  • The object or material will absorb the laser light stream

In some cases, two or all three of the above-mentioned activities could take place at the same time. It is worth mentioning that laser beams have a specific wavelength and colour. In addition, they offer tight and concentrated light. This is quite unlike light that a torch provides, which usually scatters or disperses in all directions.

The use of lasers has revolutionised the manufacturing industry. Laser cutting is particularly useful in the petrochemical, automotive and construction sectors. But, it is worth mentioning that this technology is increasingly becoming invaluable for manufacturing a diverse range of products for all kinds of industries. Laser cutting has helped manufacturing companies produce their wares more accurately, more quickly and relatively less expensively. Not surprisingly, many businesses are on the lookout for laser cutting firms all across the country to capitalise on the competitive edge that laser cutting technology typically provides.

What is a Laser?

Several people might find it hard to think that a beam of light could cut through various materials more easily than a spinning or rotating blade. This is especially so if the materials that needed cutting were metallic, glass, wooden or other hard substances. But, when these individuals reflect on this aspect, they will probably be thinking of traditional beams of light. Using traditional beams of light to cut through hard materials would certainly be a hopeless proposition. In contrast, if you were to use a concentrated laser beam, you would be able to accomplish this objective with minimal fuss.

For the uninitiated, a laser denotes a device that emits light. This device emits light based on a process of optical amplification, which traces its origins to the principles of stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The first laser emerged in 1960 by Theodore H Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories. The term LASER is an abbreviation for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Some people might feel that a laser is similar to other sources of light. However, this is not the case. Unlike other sources of light, lasers emit light coherently. This trait enables workers to focus the laser beam on a specific spot in fields such as lithography and laser cutting. Lasers can emit light with a very narrow spectrum as well. This means that lasers can emit a single colour of light only, if required.

As mentioned earlier, not many people are aware of the extent to which lasers have come into widespread use in contemporary times. Laser cutting and welding companies specialise in providing laser cut intercom facia plates to spec. – among other things. Lasers are also an essential feature of optical disk drives, laser printers and barcode scanners. In the healthcare industry, lasers come into use in laser surgery and skin treatments. Law enforcement and military agencies use laser for marking targets. In addition, they use lasers for measuring the range and speeds of projectiles. Lasers are useful in DNA sequencing instruments and fibre-optics as well. And, many people would not have failed to feel impressed by laser lighting displays in fairs and trade shows. All of this does not merely highlight how versatile laser technology is. It also goes to show how this technology is affecting our lives more significantly than we might have thought possible.

What is Laser Cutting?

Laser cutting refers to a process by which workers cut precise patterns in a variety of materials, ranging from wood to metal. In the past, workers often used conventional machining tools to cut patterns into various hard surfaces. But, these devices did not provide the commensurate levels of accuracy and complexity that some applications required. The emergence of lasers in the 1960s, led to the evolution of laser cutting technology.

Laser cutting services in Sydney and other places use lasers for cutting various materials. The use of this technology is quite widespread in industrial manufacturing applications. However, in recent times, even schools and small businesses have been employing this technology to good effect. Industrial laser cutters are ideal for cutting flat-sheet material. But, they can cut structural and piping materials as well.

The process of laser cutting works by stimulating a gaseous medium i.e. carbon dioxide. This results in amplifying light reflected back and forth multiple times within the laser chamber. The beam of light will emerge from an aperture. Thereafter, it remains focused on to a specific point by a lens. Some of the most common process lasers will produce beams that are about 1/5th of a millimetre in width. These beams can focus 1,000 to 2,000 watts of energy at the desired point. This intensity is usually sufficient for melting a diverse range of materials.

However, this does not mean that lasers can penetrate entirely through all the materials placed before these beams. It is worth highlighting that as they penetrate a material, laser become less focused. In addition, they start losing energy as well. This is why experts recommend using this technology for making cuts that are below 20 millimetres in depth.

Another aspect that is worth dwelling on is the fact that lasers typically comprise photons. Because of this, materials such as copper and aluminium alloys can reflect away part of the laser’s energy. In addition, it is worth mentioning that these materials happen to be good thermal conductors too. As such, they will easily be able to distribute the incoming heat more evenly throughout their volume. Therefore, workers engaged in laser cutting will usually avoid using lasers to cut through such materials. Instead, they will use laser cutting techniques on surfaces that are poor at absorbing heat, such as stainless steel and carbon alloys. Materials that are poor at absorbing heat tend to concentrate heat into the path of the laser more easily. As such, cutting them with lasers becomes considerably easier.

For More Information About Laser Cutting Services, Visit Fx Plastics Today!

The Marvel of Computer Aided Drawing

Since its inception into the workplace computer aided drawing (CAD) has allowed millions of businesses to find quick, reliable and precise methods of designing and fabricating manufacturing solutions. On top of that, this revolutionary marvel is cost effective for businesses. Precise output allows for a minimization of waste as no wasteful space is left over during the manufacturing. The solutions provided via computer aided drawing (CAD) also save the businesses money as products purchased not made precisely through Computer Aided Design can be faulty or obsolete when attempted to be utilized. This sometimes requires a business to seek diamond polishing to repair or refine an industrial part which can become a great expense.

Computer aided design is used for the creation of so many products that it would be impossible to list them all here.  Essentially CAD is used for the precise engineering of any 3D or 2D models generated on a computer. Using a computer enables manufacturers to get measurements specific to the millimeter and even less. Detailed layouts of different parts which will be combined together later can be formed on a computer before it is created in real life to ensure that the real thing will be viable and functional. Its prevents risky manufacturing through its quality output and precise modelling.

Additionally, a common misconception is that computer aided manufacturing (CAM) is the same as computer aided drawing (CAD). The difference lies in the function, CAD is the process of designing the product on a CAD software instead of hand drawing to ensure accuracy whereas, CAM is the creation of paths for tools used to make the CAD products, watching animations etc .

Battle between Plastic and Glass!

An array of  many products being produced, acrylic or plastic is often preferred over glass. Some , acrylic items can be polished to attain the clear and polished look of glass using a diamond polisher. Apart from the aesthetics though, there are many more reasons why acrylic is the material .

  • Pieces made from acrylic are much lighter than their glass counterparts. Take the case of a plastic display cabinet versus a glass cabinet for instance.
  • Plastic is sturdier than glass and will not break as easily. They are also dent and impact-proof to certain degrees, so you no longer have to fear about your kids and pets running around the house. The only disadvantage is that it is more prone to retain scratch marks than glass.
  • Objects made with acrylic are cheaper than their glass or metal counterparts
  • Acrylic items are synthetic with UV-resistant coatings.

Acrylic has replaced glass in many areas including windshields for motorcycles and snow mobiles, display cases for museums or establishments, lighting fixtures, and many more. Complex acrylic fabrication procedures like CNC routing and machining will be required in the creation of many of the above mentioned products.

The way  Acrylic Fabrication Helping Businesses?

Acrylic fabrication has been helping businesses in a myriad of ways. For one, acrylic fabrication can help to create point of sale displays, plastic display cabinets and shelves that allows retailers to showcase their products in a stylish manner. This then attracts more customers to come over and take a look at the product, and can thus help in increasing the potential customer’s urge to want to buy the product – think “impulsive” purchases. In addition, these cabinets provides for a secured means for shops to display their products without fear because these cabinets are secured. The same is true for businesses in the food industry, where hygiene is important and flies are a common problem.

Acrylic fabrication is also a great method of creating branding materials for companies and businesses. Nameplates, signs, or labels can all be made through acrylic fabrication with the aid of computer aided drawing (CAD). In the same manner, cabinets and point of dale displays can also be customized into a wide array of designs and colours that reflects the company’s brand. This being said, there are more and more industries which are turning to acrylic fabrication companies to help them in promoting their business and institutions. For more information, visit FX Plastics Today!

Laser Cutting Service Sydney: Get Stainless Steel Benchtops for Your Residential or Commercial Kitchens

When it comes to building and putting together the perfect kitchen, there are certainly many points to consider. Whether it’s a residential or commercial kitchen, everyone will always want something that not only looks aesthetically appealing, but is also highly practical and functional as well. To achieve this end, you’re going to need to decide on which cabinets you’ll want installed, the type of flooring to be used, and so many other things like lighting, furniture, appliances and others. Speaking of installations, one installation that you can’t ignore is your benchtop. Given their size and purpose, they do influence the extent to which your kitchen looks great and its functionality. There are different options available to kitchen owners when it comes to choosing a benchtop, but one of the most highly recommended is stainless steel. There are many benefits to having stainless steel benchtops installed in your kitchen as outlined below, as well as why you may want to consider using custom cut stainless steel benchtops from a company offering laser cutting service in Sydney.

Tailor-made to Your Preferences

Stainless steel benchtops can be laser cut and custom made according to your preference – and if you’re looking for laser cutting service in Sydney, please don’t hesitate to get in touch with us. In fact, laser cut stainless steel benchtops are popular options because they can be made to fit perfectly in any kitchen. With these benchtops, kitchen owners can have a tailored countertop that looks elegant and perfect once installed.

Stainless steel is one of the most flexible materials available when it comes to laser cutting in Canberra. With a little imagination, you can have an interesting looking countertop made specifically according to your needs and wants. Along this line, you can also have stainless steel splashbacks made together with your countertop, or even have a sink attached to it, which makes cleaning it much easier because of the lack of edges and grooves between the countertop and the sink.

A Contemporary Appeal

One reason why many kitchen owners like stainless steel benchtops is because it blends perfectly well with contemporary kitchens. It has this nice sheen that gives it a shiny and sleek appeal. Because of the neutral gray colour, it is a perfect choice for all types of kitchen – whether it be residential or commercial. In addition, stainless steel also works well with traditional kitchen styles. If you’re having trouble incorporating stainless steel benchtops, splashbacks or any other stainless steel appliance in your kitchen or even laser cut decorative metal screens, you can ask the help of an interior designer.

Stainless steel also comes in the usual sleek finish or in brushed finishes. With brushed finishes, it will not be as shiny and vibrant, but it does come with the advantage of having a textured looks. If you are not sure whether to go for the traditional finish or a brushed finish, you can always drop by any retailer so you can see for yourself the difference between the two.

Durable and Resilient to Stains

Aside from being beautiful in the kitchen, stainless steel benchtops are also very resistant to water, heat, and other elements. This resilience to elements is one reason why stainless steel is a favourite materials for laser cut sculpture panels, laser cut decorative timber panels and outdoor installations as well. Because of its non-porous surface, water and any other type of liquid is unable to penetrate through its surface. One of the many issues that people have with wooden benchtops and even some low quality tiles is that they usually get stained with food coloring, grape juice, wine or any other coloured liquid. With stainless steel countertops, this should no longer be an issue. Now, you can let your kids who are aspiring to be chefs to work on the kitchen without worrying that they’ll leave messy stains on your countertop. If there are any spills, simply wipe it away with a clean towel and your stainless steel countertop will look just like new. As mentioned, stainless steel benchtops are also resilient to heat, so you can put down a hot pan on it and you don’t have to worry about damage (like cracked tiles) or burned wooden counter.

Create a larger kitchen

One of the best features of stainless steel is its ability to reflect light. If you’ve seen stainless steel laser cut house numbers reflecting sunlight, the effect is pretty much the same. When installed properly and with the right lighting, you can make the stainless steel benchtop reflect light and thus create a brighter kitchen. Aside from this, this can help create and illusion of a wider and more spacious kitchen. You will want to talk to a professional designer to help you achieve this effect.

Keep Flavour of Foods

Another benefit of using stainless steel benchtops is that they don’t affect the taste of food that is prepared on top of them. Stainless steel will not react with the foods and their chemical contents, unlike wooden countertops. This is one reason why many kitchen utensils are made from stainless steel materials because they don’t affect the taste of the food they are used in. Despite this though, it is still best to make it a practice to clean your stainless steel benchtops so it doesn’t develop any bacteria that can affect the taste of foods.

Stainless Steel Benchtops Are Sanitary

Stainless steel benchtops is a non-porous material, which means that there is lesser chances that bacteria and mold will grow and thrive on it. This is unlike tiles or wooden benchtops where bacteria and mold can grow in the grout or on the surface of the wood. This same property is why stainless steel is used in laser cut house numbers and other outdoor installations because it is able to resist mold growth caused by heat and moisture. However, it is still wise to keep in mind that bacteria can grow on stainless steel benchtops when not cleaned properly. Using an appropriate metal cleaner is sometimes recommended, but generally, wiping it clean with a towel and detergent should be enough. So when using stainless steel benchtops, you have lesser worries about your food being contaminated with germs and bacteria, making it not only delicious but safe as well.

Things to Wary about with Stainless Steel Benchtops

Although there are many good reasons why you should consider installing stainless steel benchtops in your kitchen, there are certain things that you’ll want to know first. Like in any other purchase – whether it’s laser cut shapes or laser cut checkered metal floor plate or whatnots, a little knowledge of both the pros and cons of the product is necessary. The following are some of the most common drawbacks of stainless steel benchtops, or stainless steel in general. By knowing these, you’ll have a better idea of stainless steel benchtops and thus be able to make a wiser decision when buying countertops for your kitchen.

  • Stainless steel benchtops are not scratch-proof. When you first buy and have stainless steel benchtops installed, they will have a clean and shiny surface. However, this won’t stay that way forever. After using them for years or even months, you will make a scratch on your stainless steel benchtop. The good thing about this is that stainless steel will develop a patina that will look better as it ages. And there is no saying that you will only make one scratch on your stainless steel benchtop, especially when you are not careful or subject your countertop to extreme use. But then, all those scratches will blend together and look natural.
  • Stainless steel benchtops can dent. Aside from scratches, stainless steel benchtops are also prone to developing dings and dents overtime. This is but normal, especially in commercial kitchens. The best way to combat this is to call a professional and skilled benchtop installer because the quality of the installation will play a huge part in preventing these dings and dents. What pros usually do is to layer the stainless steel over solid, which helps to absorb the impact and therefore reduce the occurrences of dings and dents.
  • Stainless steel benchtops can be noisy. One comment that you will usually hear about stainless steel countertops is that they can be noisy when used aggressively, as is the case in many commercial kitchens. However, the noise isn’t really too much of a bother if you’re using it at home since you don’t usually have to cook every minute like they do in commercial kitchens.

Custom Cut Stainless Steel Benchtops from Laser Cutting Service in Sydney

Stainless steel benchtops can definitely look great in any residential and commercial kitchen. But aside from the look, stainless steel makes for the perfect benchtop because it is sanitary and requires little to no maintenance. Aside from this, they can be very durable and last for a long time. Still, there are some things to consider when it comes to choosing stainless steel benchtops, and you should keep these in mind when looking to buy such item.

In order to get the best quality possible, considering going for custom cut stainless steel benchtops. This will make sure that your get the exact measurements you want for your benchtops, and at the same time you also get finely cut stainless steel so you don’t have to worry about any sharp edges that can cause unwanted accidents, especially when you have kids who love to run around the house and the kitchen. If you are looking for laser cut stainless steel benchtops, please don’t hesitate to get in touch with us through our telephone line at +61 – 2 9550 5844 . You can also email us through Sales and we’ll get back to you as soon as we can. We also do laser cut shims, laser cut intercom facia plates to spec and other laser cutting services.

The many uses of acrylic fabrication

Acrylic and Plastic fabrication has assisted us in the manufacturing of many products we use today Spare a second to take a look around you and you’ll see just how much plastic has become a part of everyday  life – the plastic display case where you display off your kid’s trophies and awards, the coffee machine where you just got your coffee, even the computer keyboard you’re typing on – you’ll see that bulk of the items you have at home or at the office are made of this material. In a more general sense, acrylic fabrication has developed much to the growth of many technologies and industries

What Is Acrylic Fabrication and what is it used for

In short acrylic fabrication is the process of transforming a piece of acrylic sheet into a different form of item like a coffee table or letterings for a signage. To attain this will require particular tools and equipment. For example, the letterings mentioned will need to be cut with accuracy (especially if they involve intricate designs) and this is probable only with the use of CNC laser cutting. For instance, there are companies who manufacture only plastic display cases, and there are other who specialize in crafting miniatures out of acrylic. Therefore, smaller acrylic fabrication companies will be mostly focused on the production of small and medium sized items, while bigger companies with more sophisticated equipment takes care of the larger items.

Different methods and processes involved in acrylic manufacture  Plastic can be designed, molded and shaped into a different items by utilizing services like the reliable acrylic laser cutting Sydney .Other services like polishing and laminating helps to give plastic items a wonderful sheen and shine that makes it look just as attractive as glass with either a matte or glossy finish. Using the different technology and methods available possible items that can be fashioned using acrylic fabrication are becoming never-ending.

3 Big Reasons CNC Routing and Machining Is Great For Custom Fabrication

CNC routing and machining has been on the industrial market for some time now. While laser cutting technologies have existed since the 1960s, they have really gained ground with the invention of Computer Aided Designs (CAD) software. Design and fabrication of plastic displays and other products are more accurate now than ever before.

But there are other options for fabrication out there as well. So, the question is whether you should go for CNC routing and machining based plastic fabrication in Sydney or something else? Here are some benefits to consider when making a choice.

Benefits of CNC Routing and Machining for Plastic Fabrication in Sydney

  1. Highly Efficient

The great thing about all kinds of industrial Computer Aided Design (CAD) software is that they can be upgraded without changing the existing hardware. So, CAD based laser CNC laser cutting technologies are regularly upgraded which allows them to be highly efficient for plastic fabrication. This not only means you get quality services at a reduced price but also that your fabricated product is cut with surgical accuracy.

  1. Professionally Operated

All kinds of CNC laser cutting and machining apparatus is operated by experienced professionals. They use the highly accurate technology of CAD to make precise measurements and modifications as required by the client. This enables them to change any product if the client wants some modifications easily even after the overall fabrication is done. So, clients get the benefit of making customisations to a far greater degree than in other methods of plastic fabrication in Sydney.

  1. Versatile Materials

CNC laser cutting can cut through most kinds of materials. This means that whether you want industry standard acrylic sheets or something sturdier, CNC routing and machining will help you get the right product. Further, the software upgrades can cater to specific materials and deliver the best output according to specific needs. This means if you want to use special UV resistant plastics or coating for standard fabrication materials, then this can be done for economical costs.

Where Can You Get Quality CNC Routing and Machining and Plastic Fabrication Services?

FX Plastics provides high-quality CNC laser cutting solutions for multiple industries including design and fabrication. We can ensure you get the best quality products for the right price. Get in touch today to get a personalized quote based on your specific budget and requirements! For more information about CAD, visit Fx Plastics Today !

Something to know about Acrylic Sheets

Acrylic material used in Acrylic sheets exhibit greater load bearing capacity than polycarbonate which is considered as one of the toughest materials. There are different types of acrylic sheets available which can help in creating customised designs based on your business need. One of the most popular techniques Computer aided drawing (CAD) has revolutionised the plastic manufacturing industry since it offers both quality and reliability without compromising on the aesthetics. The next step in the design and fabrication process of acrylic sheets involves application of glue as per the design.

Where Can You Get the Best Acrylic Sheets Products?

Looking for high-quality products made from acrylic sheets? Look no further than FX Plastics. We have a wide range of top-quality custom plastic products on offer for your home or business needs. Whether you are a DIY person or pro looking to source materials for a client project, we can help you get the most reliable customized products in the market. Contact us now!

CNC Techniques for manufacturing any machine entity in electronic and agricultural sectors

Below are the different techniques for manufacturing any machine enitity:

  • Yield Superb Levels of Precision and Facilitate Easy Repeatability: CNC machines function by virtue of programs stored in the computer’s processor. As a result, you can run the program each time you need to churn out a specific part or product. The program will always yield an exact replica of the desired part. This consistency in producing precise and identical products makes CNC machines highly popular. In contrast, the use of conventional machines might yield products with slight variations.
  • Reduce Production Costs: Any reputed metal or Perspex cutting company in Sydney or elsewhere will use CNC machines. These machines will not be as labour intensive as their traditional counterparts. Thus, the production costs will remain low. As a result, you will be able to pass the cost savings on to your customers. This could give you a significant competitive edge in the market. On top of this, unlike human operators, CNC machines will not need to take breaks. Nor will they exhibit signs of distraction or weariness. This means that you will be able to use these machines on a 24×7 basis to increase revenues. CNC machines also help in minimising wastage.
  • Offer Enhanced Levels of Versatility: CNC machines can produce the most elaborate and complicated designs with minimal fuss. Some designs can be so intricate that even the most skilled of engineers could find it tough to make them. In contrast, CNC machines can produce any designs at high accuracy and precision levels.
  • Remain Superior in Terms of Safety Levels: When using traditional machining tools, the engineers will need to be in close contact with the tools and materials. This increases the likelihood of accidents – especially if the person’s concentration starts wavering. In contrast, CNC machines keep the moving tools and materials away from the engineers, which enhances safety levels considerably.
  • Require Minimal Levels of Maintenance: Many acrylic laser cutting companies in Sydney and other places use CNC machines. These machines can speed up production levels in minimal timeframes. In addition, they require minimal levels of maintenance. All that you will need to do will be to keep the machine clean. In addition, you might need to replace certain tools periodically. If you take care of this, the machines will continue to yield superlative levels of productivity with minimal fuss. Moreover, CNC machines will update their software as and when needed automatically. This will not require any manual intervention. For more information, Visit FX Plastics Today !

How Associating with a CNC Routing and Machining Company Can Benefit Manufacturing Companies

Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines first emerged during the 1940s. These machines used to perform certain basic functions. With the passage of time, these machines have become highly specialised. In particular, their ability to make various machine tools function automatically by utilising pre-determined computer programs has made them a necessity in today’s business environment. At its most basic, a CNC machine typically features a computer and a tool used for shaping the material. The computer uses a program for controlling the tool and the material. This yields a precisely cut or shaped end product or part.

Numerous industrial and manufacturing entities the world over use CNC machines for producing a diverse range of products and prototypes. Diamond polishers, grinders, mills, lathes and routers represent just a few of the tools that you can control with the help of CNC machining techniques. CNC machines nullify the need for human intervention, when it comes to manually operating the machines during the manufacturing process. Not surprisingly, this aspect can be a huge facilitator when it comes to improving productivity levels while minimising labour costs.

As mentioned earlier, CNC machining comes into use in an array of applications. Many companies that produce items for companies in the automotive, electronic and agricultural sectors rely on CNC machines extensively. Some companies do not have the resources for purchasing the expensive CNC machines. So, they partner with companies offering CNC machining services to produce an assortment of end products. This association can be quite beneficial for the manufacturing entity because CNC machining techniques: